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Sneezing, rashes, irritation, asthma… are typical symptoms of allergies which today affect 20% of the world population and the number is increasing every day. What are allergies? How to treat allergies? Is there a cure? Here we tell you everything there is to know about allergies.



  • Mite Allergy

    The substance that causes allergy is often mite droppings, and certainly one of the most widespread allergies.

    Where is it found? In powder and damp places.

    How to deal with it? Use the vacuum cleaner, cover mattresses and use hypoallergenic pillows.

  • Hayfever

    Especially in springtime.

    Where does it occur? Open spaces where there is vegetation.

    How to deal with it? Avoid these spaces during the day, keep windows closed and know which pollen you are allergic to, in order to avoid it.

  • Allergy to animal hair

    Especially in dogs and cats.

    How to deal with it? Avoid contact with animals as much as possible and clean the areas where they have been.

  • Allergy to insect stings

    The bite leaves a substance in the body that causes an allergy and can be fatal.

    In highly allergic individuals, epinephrine should be administered immediately.

  • Allergy to mold

    The allergy usually occurs when spores are inhaled which have been released from the mold.

    How to deal with it? Although there are many types of mold, we know that mold grows in damp places, therefore we must avoid activities in moist environments and always ventilate the house.

  • Food allergy

    The most common allergy-causing foods are: wheat, peanuts, seafood and milk.

    How to deal with it? Avoid eating foods which you are allergic to. Once the food has been consumed treatment with antihistamines and corticosteroid is recommended. In extreme situations it may be necessary to administer adrenaline.

  • Latex Allergy

    Where is it found? In gloves, condoms and certain medical devices.

    How to deal with it? Avoid contact with any type of latex and always tell medical personnel about this allergy.


  • Allergy to some drugs

    Such as penicillin or aspirin. It is important that…..these people always notify medical personnel, or wear a bracelet, letting people know about the allergy to avoid any possible reaction.

  • Allergy to fragrances

    The substances found in perfumes, detergents, scented candles and cosmetics can cause serious allergic reactions.


  • Allergy to cockroaches

    The cause of the allergy is proteins released from their stools.

    How to deal with it? Treat the cockroaches with pesticides and use all means possible to prevent the entry of cockroaches.



  • Aquagenic urticaria or allergy to water

    Sufferers: 40 people worldwide.

    Symptoms appear after being in contact with water, either hot or cold. This allergy complicates the lives of people who suffer from it.

    Treatment and Remedy: There are creams and oils that can be taken by patients to create a protective layer on the skin. Histamines are also given.

  • Hypersensitivity to semen

    This allergy is often confused with any sexually transmitted disease, although the problem is a hypersensitivity to seminal fluid. It is estimated that this allergy accounts for 5% of couples with infertility problems. There are men, but in greater numbers, who are also allergic to vaginal fluids.

    Sufferers: 1 in 100,000 women.

    Symptoms: Causes swelling, welts and burning in the genitals, but can cause anaphylactic shock and death.

    Treatment and remedy: Always use a condom and try slowly desensitizing by moderately increasing contact with semen until achieving full tolerance.

  • Allergy to sunlight

    It usually occurs because people are allergic to the protein secreted when in contact with the sun.

    Symptoms: Welts on the skin and, in the worst cases, burns.

    Treatment and remedy: Gradual sun exposure and ingestion of antioxidant foods is recommended.

  • Allergy to pressure

    Also known as dermatism.

    Sufferers: Between 2 and 5% of the population.

    Symptoms: Rubbing the skin causes swelling, marks and itching spots.

    Treatment and remedy: Creams and antihistamines.

  • Allergy to kisses

    Contrary to what you might think from the name of the allergy, sufferers have no allergy to the lips or saliva, but are so allergic to an element, that contact with the lips of anyone who has eaten it causes them to react.

    Symptoms: Swelling of the lips or in the area where the kiss is received and in exceptional cases can cause serious breathing difficulties.

    Treatment and Remedy: Antihistamines.


  • Allergy to exercise

    Sufferers: 1,000 people worldwide.

    Also called anaphylaxis, this is an allergic reaction induced by physical exercise in reaction with food or medicine.

    Symptoms: From itching and welts to collapse.

    Treatment: Sufferers are advised to carry an adrenaline kit with them.

  • Allergy to cold

    This allergy not only occurs when the sufferer comes into contact with cold weather, but also by eating cold foods or liquids. And it can even be caused by exercise, as sweat cools the skin.

    Symptoms: Itching, swelling, welts, even death.

    Treatment: Depending on the symptom, due to exposure to cold.

  • Allergy to heat

    This usually occurs when the person is exposed to temperatures above 43 degrees Celsius. Or are exposed to high temperatures caused by exercise, electric blankets, hot water bottles, saunas, showers or spicy foods.

    Symptoms: Itching, swelling, rash, welts, even hallucinations.

    Treatment: Depends on the symptoms, but creams are often recommended.

  • Allergy to mobile phones

    Sufferers: 17% of women and 3% of men.

    It is actually a nickel allergy, and with the use of mobile phones exposure to this mineral is much greater than in the past. However, there are also people who may be allergic to electromagnetic emissions.

    Symptoms: Rash along the jaw, ear and cheek.

  • Allergy to hormones

    The one which affects most people is the allergy to estrogen and progesterone. Until recently the idea of ​​being allergic to our own hormone was discarded because it was too small, now it is known to cause such allergies.

    Symptoms: body rash, usually occurs before the menstrual cycle.

    Treatment: Antihistamines.

What is an allergy?

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    The allergy is an exaggerated false alarm of the body, which ends up being detrimental to the individual.


An allergy is a hypersensitivity to a substance or particle that is harmless for most people.

Thus, something that in principle is not harmful to a person’s body is detected as such and the body produces defenses to protect against it.

Types of allergies

Classified by allergens that cause allergies











Anisakis (a substance found in fish)

Types of allergies

Classified by the symptoms that cause them


Symptoms: sneezing, runny nose, cough, itching.

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    The person inhales allergens via respiratory system. What causes it? Fungi, animals, pollen, mites.



Symptoms: red eye, itchy eyes, tearing.

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    Conjunctival mucous inflammation. Affects 25% of the population. Causes: fungi, animals, pollen, mites.



Symptoms: redness, itching, blisters, rash, inflammation, peeling.

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    Produced by allergen contact with skin or if swallowed. Causes: anisakis, sun, drugs, animals, insect bites, food, nickel, latex.



There are two types of causes


Allergy symptoms

The way allergies manifest themselves varies because

it depends on what causes it and the affected organ.

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    Cutaneous (skin): eczema, rash.

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    Lung: asthma, lung disease.

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    Eye: conjunctivitis, keratitis.

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    Ear, nose and throat: rhinitis, sinusitis, epistaxis, anosmia.

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    Gastrointestinal: vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain.

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    Hematologic: anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, eosinophilia.

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    An allergy can cause anaphylaxis (anaphylactic shock) which can cause death.


Most common allergy symptoms

Examinations and Tests

To diagnose an allergy, it is essential that a correlation is established between:

1. The symptoms observed

2. The triggering allergen

3. The involvement of the immune system

It should begin with the medical history of the patient, taking into account the family history and a physical examination. In many cases one must resort to a series of complementary tests to highlight the presence of the suspected allergen.

The most common tests and examinations are:

Blood test

Allergy test

Follow-up testing


To understand the allergy treatment we must start from the basis that the allergy is an immunological reaction of the body, and therefore is a chronic disease which gets worse. In some cases these symptoms may subside and can overcome the allergy, making the body aware of the component that formerly made it react.

Therefore, any treatment involves:


 Allergen avoidance

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    Specially when the allergy agent can be avoided (food or drugs).



 Drug treatment

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    The affected organ is medicated. It must be a combination of the symptoms and the allergic reaction.The most common drugs to treat allergies are: antihistamines, corticosteroids and decongestants.


 Modification of the altered immune response.

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    The body reaction to the allergy agent is modified by the introduction in small doses.


Allergy Prevention

When the allergen is avoidable, everything should be done to avoid it. For example, if one is allergic to a particular food, it is best not to eat it. It is popularly believed that being in contact with the allergen, such as animals when you are allergic to them, can decrease the allergy, but experts dispute this theory. What is more, discomfort and sensitivity may increase.

How to prevent allergies when the allergen is not so easy to avoid?


Avoid very enclosed, damp environments.

Cotton clothes

Attract fewer of the micro allergy-causing particles.

Use the dryer

Hanging clothes out to dry in open spaces may allow pollen to get onto them.

More showers

Especially in spring, the particles stick to the skin and hair.

Bear in mind the seasons

In spring there are often many more allergic reactions.

Avoid gardening

Handling plants increases exposure to pollen.


Stress and nerves greatly increase the occurrence of eczema and rashes, which is why they are also called psychosomatic allergies.


It is a technique that involves the administration of small doses of the allergen to cause sensitization.


  1. Calm the person. Anxiety only makes all symptoms worse.
  2. Identify the allergen and prevent the person coming into contact with it.
  3. If the allergic reaction is caused by a bee sting, the stinger must be removed as soon as possible either with bare hands or with some kind of plastic. For example, in these cases a credit card can be very useful for leverage.
  4. Do not use tweezers to remove the stinger as it could cause more venom to escape, worsening allergic reaction.
  5. If the person has a rash and itching: apply moist gauze and cortisone cream.
  6. Always check how symptoms progress, to see whether they increase or decrease.
  7. Consult a physician: it is always important to consult a health professional who may, depending on the symptoms, recommend antihistamines.
  8. Go to Accident and Emergency: if symptoms worsen, do not hesitate to call an ambulance immediately.


This reaction, also called Anaphylaxis is very dangerous and can even cause death, so it is essential to react as quickly as possible. One of the key signs is to see if the person can breathe or if any of their airways are closed.

  1. Call an ambulance immediately.
  2. See if the person is wearing a bracelet or any identification that lets you know about their allergies. They may be allergic to some medications and it is important to know so as not to worsen the reaction.
  3. Calm them down and reduce their anxiety.
  4. If the allergic reaction is caused by a bee sting, the stinger must be removed. Never with tweezers, as that could release more venom and worsen the reaction.
  5. A person who is suffering an allergic reaction may carry the proper medication in their bag. In that case, help to inject the medication as soon as possible.
  6. Avoid oral medication if the person is having trouble breathing.
  7. To prevent shock: it is important to lay the person down, raise their feet about 30cm and cover them with a blanket or coat.
  8. Avoid laying down the person who is suffering allergic reactions if the allergic reaction has occurred in the neck, back or legs.


  1. Do not assume, however much they have been supplied with medication, that the allergic reaction is over. It is important always to consult a doctor.
  2. Do not put a pillow under their head, if they are having trouble breathing.
  3. Never give anything orally (medicine or liquids) if the person is having trouble breathing, as this could cause further obstruction of the airways.